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     As many of you are aware ASA 8.4 has been released recently. It contains many long awaited features, among them many changes/improvements to IPsec VPN.

A few days later I received an querry from a friend asking me, what happened to IPsec in 8.4. Good question and here you go..

Of course first thing notices is that there is no longer “isakmp” keyword, it was substituted by “ikev1”. But i have used in this article some “isakmp” words but dont worry go on..

IPsec-Sample-diagram

Configuring Interfaces

Step 1 To enter Interface configuration mode, in global configuration mode enter the interface command with the default name of the interface to configure. In the following example the interface is ethernet0.

hostname(config)# interface ethernet0/0
hostname(config-if)#

Step 2 To set the IP address and subnet mask for the interface, enter the ip address command. In the following example the IP address is 10.10.4.100 and the subnet mask is 255.255.0.0.

hostname(config-if)# ip address 10.10.4.100 255.255.0.0
hostname(config-if)#

Step 3 To name the interface, enter the nameif command, maximum of 48 characters. You cannot change this name after you set it. In the following example the name of the ethernet0 interface is outside.

hostname(config-if)# nameif outside
hostname(config-if)##

Step 4 To enable the interface, enter the no version of the shutdown command. By default, interfaces are disabled.

hostname(config-if)# no shutdown
hostname(config-if)#

Step 5 To save your changes, enter the write memory command.

hostname(config-if)# write memory
hostname(config-if)#

Step 6 To configure a second interface, use the same procedure.

Configuring ISAKMP Policy and Enabling ISAKMP on the Outside Interface

The ASA supports IKEv1 for connections from the legacy Cisco VPN client, and IKEv2 for the AnyConnect VPN client.

To set the terms of the ISAKMP negotiations, you create an IKE policy, which includes the following:

•The authentication type required of the IKEv1 peer, either RSA signature using certificates or preshared key (PSK).

•An encryption method, to protect the data and ensure privacy.

•A Hashed Message Authentication Codes (HMAC) method to ensure the identity of the sender, and to ensure that the message has not been modified in transit.

•A Diffie-Hellman group to determine the strength of the encryption-key-determination algorithm. The ASA uses this algorithm to derive the encryption and hash keys.

•For IKEv2, a separate pseudo-random function (PRF) used as the algorithm to derive keying material and hashing operations required for the IKEv2 tunnel encryption, etc.

•A limit to the time the ASA uses an encryption key before replacing it.

With IKEv1 policies, for each parameter, you set one value. For IKEv2, you can configure multiple encryption and authentication types, and multiple integrity algorithms for a single policy. The ASA orders the settings from the most secure to the least secure and negotiates with the peer using that order. This allows you to potentially send a single proposal to convey all the allowed transforms instead of the need to send each allowed combination as with IKEv1.

Configuring ISAKMP Policies for IKEv1 Connections

To configure ISAKMP policies for IKEv1 connections, use the crypto ikev1 policy command to enter IKEv1 policy configuration mode where you can configure the IKEv1 parameters:

crypto ikev1 policy priority

Step 1 Enter IPsec IKEv1 policy configuration mode. For example:

hostname(config)# crypto ikev1 policy 1
hostname(config-ikev1-policy)#

Step 2 Set the authentication method. The following example configures a preshared key:

hostname(config-ikev1-policy)# authentication pre-share
hostname(config-ikev1-policy)#

Step 3 Set the encryption method. The following example configures 3DES:

hostname(config-ikev1-policy)# encryption 3des
hostname(config-ikev1-policy)#

Step 4 Set the HMAC method. The following example configures SHA-1:

hostname(config-ikev1-policy)# hash sha
hostname(config-ikev1-policy)#

Step 5 Set the Diffie-Hellman group. The following example configures Group 2:

hostname(config-ikev1-policy)# group 2
hostname(config-ikev1-policy)#

Step 6 Set the encryption key lifetime. The following example configures 43,200 seconds (12 hours):

hostname(config-ikev1-policy)# lifetime 43200
hostname(config-ikev1-policy)#

Step 7 Enable IKEv1 on the interface named outside:

hostname(config)# crypto ikev1 enable outside
hostname(config)#

Step 8 To save your changes, enter the write memory command:

hostname(config)# write memory
hostname(config)#

Configuring ISAKMP Policies for IKEv2 Connections

To configure ISAKMP policies for IKEv2 connections, use the crypto ikev2 policy command to enter IKEv2 policy configuration mode where you can configure the IKEv2 parameters:

crypto ikev2 policy priority

Step 1 Enter IPsec IKEv2 policy configuration mode. For example:

hostname(config)# crypto ikev2 policy 1
hostname(config-ikev2-policy)#

Step 2 Set the encryption method. The following example configures 3DES:

hostname(config-ikev2-policy)# encryption 3des
hostname(config-ikev2-policy)#

Step 3 Set the Diffie-Hellman group. The following example configures Group 2:

hostname(config-ikev2-policy)# group 2
hostname(config-ikev2-policy)#

Step 4 Set the pseudo-random function (PRF) used as the algorithm to derive keying material and hashing operations required for the IKEv2 tunnel encryption. The following example configures SHA-1 (an HMAC variant):

hostname(config-ikev12-policy)# prf sha
hostname(config-ikev2-policy)#

Step 5 Set the encryption key lifetime. The following example configures 43,200 seconds (12 hours):

hostname(config-ikev2-policy)# lifetime 43200
hostname(config-ikev2-policy)#

Step 6 Enable IKEv2 on the interface named outside:

hostname(config)# crypto ikev2 enable outside
hostname(config)#

Step 7 To save your changes, enter the write memory command:

hostname(config)# write memory
hostname(config)#

Creating an IKEv1 Transform Set

An IKEv1 transform set combines an encryption method and an authentication method. During the IPsec security association negotiation with ISAKMP, the peers agree to use a particular transform set to protect a particular data flow. The transform set must be the same for both peers.

A transform set protects the data flows for the access list specified in the associated crypto map entry. You can create transform sets in the ASA configuration, and then specify a maximum of 11 of them in a crypto map or dynamic crypto map entry

Valid Encryption and Authentication Methods

Valid Encryption Methods Valid Authentication Methods
esp-des esp-md5-hmac
esp-3des (default) esp-sha-hmac (default)
esp-aes (128-bit encryption)
esp-aes-192
esp-aes-256
esp-null

Tunnel Mode is the usual way to implement IPsec between two ASAs that are connected over an untrusted network, such as the public Internet. Tunnel mode is the default and requires no configuration.

To configure a transform set, perform the following steps:

Step 1 In global configuration mode enter the crypto ipsec ikev1 transform-set command. The following example configures a transform set with the name FirstSet, esp-3des encryption, and esp-md5-hmac authentication. The syntax is as follows:

crypto ipsec ikev1 transform-set transform-set-name encryption-method authentication-method

hostname(config)# crypto ipsec transform-set FirstSet esp-3des esp-md5-hmac
hostname(config)#

Step 2 Save your changes.

hostname(config)# write memory
hostname(config)#

Creating an IKEv2 Proposal

For IKEv2, you can configure multiple encryption and authentication types, and multiple integrity algorithms for a single policy. The ASA orders the settings from the most secure to the least secure and negotiates with the peer using that order. This allows you to potentially send a single proposal to convey all the allowed transforms instead of the need to send each allowed combination as with IKEv1.

 

IKEv2 Encryption and Integrity Methods

 

Valid Encryption Methods Valid Integrity Methods
des sha (default)
3des (default) md5
aes
aes-192
aes-256

To configure an IKEv2 proposal, perform the following steps:

Step 1 In global configuration mode, use the crypto ipsec ikev2 ipsec-proposal command to enter ipsec proposal configuration mode where you can specify multiple encryption and integrity types for the proposal. In this example, secure is the name of the proposal:

hostname(config)# crypto ipsec ikev2 ipsec-proposal secure
hostname(config-ipsec-proposal)#

Step 2 Then enter a protocol and encryption types. ESP is the only supported protocol. For example:

hostname(config-ipsec-proposal)# protocol esp encryption 3des aes des
hostname(config-ipsec-proposal)#

Step 3 Enter an integrity type. For example:

hostname(config-ipsec-proposal)# protocol esp integrity sha-1
hostname(config-ipsec-proposal)#

Step 4 Save your changes.

Configuring an ACL

The adaptive security appliance uses access control lists to control network access. By default, the adaptive security appliance denies all traffic. You need to configure an ACL that permits traffic. An ACL for VPN traffic uses the translated address

To configure an ACL, perform the following steps:

Step 1 Enter the access-list extended command. The following example configures an ACL named l2l_list that lets traffic from IP addresses in the 192.168.0.0 network travel to the 150.150.0.0 network. The syntax isaccess-list listname extended permit ip source-ipaddress source-netmask destination-ipaddress destination-netmask.

hostname(config)# access-list l2l_list extended permit ip 192.168.0.0 255.255.0.0 
150.150.0.0 255.255.0.0
hostname(config)#

Step 2 Configure an ACL for the ASA on the other side of the connection that mirrors the ACL above. In the following example the prompt for the peer is hostname2.

hostname2(config)# access-list l2l_list extended permit ip 150.150.0.0 255.255.0.0 
192.168.0.0 255.255.0.0
hostname(config)#

Defining a Tunnel Group

A tunnel group is a set of records that contain tunnel connection policies. You configure a tunnel group to identify AAA servers, specify connection parameters, and define a default group policy. The ASA stores tunnel groups internally.

There are two default tunnel groups in the ASA: DefaultRAGroup, which is the default IPsec remote-access tunnel group, and DefaultL2Lgroup, which is the default IPsec LAN-to-LAN tunnel group. You can modify them but not delete them.

You can also create one or more new tunnel groups to suit your environment. The ASA uses these groups to configure default tunnel parameters for remote access and LAN-to-LAN tunnel groups when there is no specific tunnel group identified during tunnel negotiation.

To establish a basic LAN-to-LAN connection, you must set two attributes for a tunnel group:

•Set the connection type to IPsec LAN-to-LAN.

•Configure an authentication method for the IP, in the following example, preshared key for IKEv1 and IKEv2.

To use VPNs, including tunnel groups, the ASA must be in single-routed mode. The commands to configure tunnel-group parameters do not appear in any other mode.

Step 1 To set the connection type to IPsec LAN-to-LAN, enter the tunnel-group command. The syntax is tunnel-group name type type, where name is the name you assign to the tunnel group, and type is the type of tunnel. The tunnel types as you enter them in the CLI are:

remote-access (IPsec, SSL, and clientless SSL remote access)

ipsec-l2l (IPsec LAN to LAN)

In the following example the name of the tunnel group is the IP address of the LAN-to-LAN peer, 10.10.4.108.

hostname(config)# tunnel-group 10.10.4.108 type ipsec-l2l
hostname(config)#

LAN-to-LAN tunnel groups that have names that are not an IP address can be used only if the tunnel authentication method is Digital Certificates and/or the peer is configured to use Aggressive Mode.

Step 2 To set the authentication method to preshared key, enter the ipsec-attributes mode and then enter the pre-shared-key command to create the preshared key. You need to use the same preshared key on both ASAs for this LAN-to-LAN connection.

The key is an alphanumeric string of 1-128 characters.

In the following example the IKEv1 preshared key is 44kkaol59636jnfx:

hostname(config)# tunnel-group 10.10.4.108 ipsec-attributes
hostname(config-tunnel-ipsec)# pre-shared-key 44kkaol59636jnfx

In the next example, the IKEv2 preshared key is configured also as 44kkaol59636jnfx:

hostname(config-tunnel-ipsec)# ikev2 local-authentication pre-shared-key 44kkaol59636jnfx

Step 3 Save your changes.

hostname(config)# write memory
hostname(config)#

Creating a Crypto Map and Applying It To an Interface

Crypto map entries pull together the various elements of IPsec security associations, including the following:

•Which traffic IPsec should protect, which you define in an access list.

•Where to send IPsec-protected traffic, by identifying the peer.

•What IPsec security applies to this traffic, which a transform set specifies.

•The local address for IPsec traffic, which you identify by applying the crypto map to an interface.

For IPsec to succeed, both peers must have crypto map entries with compatible configurations. For two crypto map entries to be compatible, they must, at a minimum, meet the following criteria:

•The crypto map entries must contain compatible crypto access lists (for example, mirror image access lists). If the responding peer uses dynamic crypto maps, the entries in the ASA crypto access list must be “permitted” by the peer’s crypto access list.

•The crypto map entries each must identify the other peer (unless the responding peer is using a dynamic crypto map).

•The crypto map entries must have at least one transform set in common.

If you create more than one crypto map entry for a given interface, use the sequence number (seq-num) of each entry to rank it: the lower the seq-num, the higher the priority. At the interface that has the crypto map set, the ASA evaluates traffic against the entries of higher priority maps first.

Enter these commands in global configuration mode:

Step 1 To assign an access list to a crypto map entry, enter the crypto map match address command.

The syntax is crypto map map-name seq-num match address aclname. In the following example the map name is abcmap, the sequence number is 1, and the access list name is l2l_list.

hostname(config)# crypto map abcmap 1 match address l2l_list
hostname(config)#

Step 2 To identify the peer (s) for the IPsec connection, enter the crypto map set peer command.

The syntax is crypto map map-name seq-num set peer {ip_address1 | hostname1}[… ip_address10 |hostname10]. In the following example the peer name is 10.10.4.108.

hostname(config)# crypto map abcmap 1 set peer 10.10.4.108
hostname(config)#

Step 3 To specify an IKEv1 transform set for a crypto map entry, enter the crypto map ikev1 set transform-setcommand.

The syntax is crypto map map-name seq-num ikev1 set transform-set transform-set-name.
In the following example the transform set name is FirstSet.

hostname(config)# crypto map abcmap 1 set transform-set FirstSet
hostname(config)#

Step 4 To specify an IKEv2 proposal for a crypto map entry, enter the crypto map ikev2 set ipsec-proposalcommand:

The syntax is crypto map map-name seq-num set ikev2 ipsec-proposal proposal-name.
In the following example the proposal name is secure.

hostname(config)# crypto map abcmap 1 set ikev2 ipsec-proposal secure
hostname(config)#

Applying Crypto Maps to Interfaces

You must apply a crypto map set to each interface through which IPsec traffic travels. The ASA supports IPsec on all interfaces. Applying the crypto map set to an interface instructs the ASA to evaluate all interface traffic against the crypto map set and to use the specified policy during connection or security association negotiations.

Step 1 To apply the configured crypto map to the outside interface, enter the crypto map interface command. The syntax is crypto map map-name interface interface-name.

hostname(config)# crypto map abcmap interface outside
hostname(config)#

Step 2 Save your changes.

hostname(config)# write memory
hostname(config)#

You are Done..!!!

 

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